# nlmixr2/rxode2 mu referencing 2.0

This month, I will talk about about a new iteration of mu-referencing in nlmixr2, which I call mu2. What is mu referencing in nlmixr2 mu-referencing is combining a fixed effect, random effect and possibly a covariate in the form: [ \theta_\mathsf{pop}+\eta_\mathsf{individual}+\theta_\mathsf{covariate}\times \mathsf{DataCovariate} ] Often they are placed in exponentials for these to be log-normally distributed like: [ \exp\left(\theta_\mathsf{pop}+\eta_\mathsf{individual}+\theta_\mathsf{covariate}\times \mathsf{DataCovariate}\right) ] In optimization routines like saem, these are switched out with a single parameter during optimization classically called (\phi) in both NONMEM and Monolix.